What Are Teeth Made Of?

What Are Teeth Made Of?

What Are Teeth Made Of?

The human body’s teeth are intriguing and necessary organs. They are very important in the digestive process because they bite, chew, and break down food. To appreciate the operation of teeth and the importance of oral health, it is crucial to comprehend the make-up and structure of teeth.

The Basic Anatomy of Teeth

Teeth are hard, mineralized structures firmly embedded in the jawbones. Each tooth consists of two main parts: the crown and the root. 

The crown is the visible part of the tooth above the gumline, while the root remains embedded in the jawbone, providing support and stability. The transition between the crown and root occurs at the gumline, also known as the cervical line.

What are our teeth actually made of?

Teeth are made up of four main substances, each contributing to their unique strength and functionality


Enamel is the outermost layer of the tooth and is the hardest substance in the human body. It covers the crown and serves as a protective shield against wear and tear caused by chewing, biting, and exposure to acids produced by bacteria in the mouth. 

Enamel is primarily made up of hydroxyapatite crystals, a calcium phosphate mineral, which gives it its extraordinary hardness.


Beneath the enamel lies the dentin, a calcified tissue that forms the bulk of the tooth’s structure. Dentin is not as hard as enamel, but it is still much harder than bone. 

It contains a matrix of collagen fibers, providing both strength and flexibility to withstand chewing forces. Dentin also contains microscopic tubules that connect to the innermost part of the tooth, the pulp.


The pulp is the innermost part of the tooth and is often referred to as the “nerve” of the tooth. It comprises connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. 

The pulp plays a crucial role during tooth development, providing nutrients to the developing tooth, but once the tooth is fully mature, it can survive without the pulp.

 Sensitivity or pain in the tooth arises when the pulp becomes infected or damaged, as it contains nerve fibers that transmit these sensations to the brain.


Cementum covers the root of the tooth and is a layer of hard connective tissue. It serves as a medium for the attachment of tiny, hair-like structures called periodontal fibers, which connect the tooth to the surrounding jawbone via the periodontal ligament. Cementum plays a crucial role in anchoring the tooth firmly in the socket.

The Importance Of Taking Care Of The Teeth 

Taking care of your teeth is crucial because they are susceptible to various dental problems if not properly maintained. Plaque, a sticky film containing harmful bacteria, can accumulate on the enamel, leading to tooth decay and cavities. The acids produced by these bacteria can erode the enamel over time, causing discomfort and pain.

To maintain healthy teeth, it’s essential to adopt a good oral hygiene routine. This includes:

  • Brushing: Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush to brush your teeth twice a day, in the morning and before bedtime, for two minutes each time.
  • Flossing: Regular flossing helps remove plaque and food particles from between teeth and along the gumline where a toothbrush cannot reach.
  • Regular Dental Check-ups: Visiting the dentist at least twice a year for check-ups and cleanings ensures early detection and prevention of dental issues.
  • Mouthwash: Using an ADA-approved mouthwash can complement brushing and flossing, helping to reduce plaque and maintain a fresh breath.
  • Healthy Diet: Eating a healthy diet that is low in sugar

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About The Teeth 

Q. What is tooth decay, and how does it happen?

A. Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is the breakdown of tooth structure caused by acids produced by bacteria in the mouth. These acids gradually erode the enamel, leading to the formation of holes or cavities in the teeth.

Q. How can I prevent tooth decay?

A. Preventing tooth decay involves practicing good oral hygiene, such as brushing your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing regularly to remove plaque and food particles between teeth, limiting sugary and acidic foods and drinks, and visiting the dentist for regular check-ups and cleanings.

Q. What causes tooth sensitivity?

A. Tooth sensitivity occurs when the dentin, which contains microscopic tubules connecting to the dental pulp, becomes exposed. Factors such as enamel erosion, gum recession, or worn tooth enamel can lead to sensitivity, causing discomfort or pain when consuming hot, cold, sweet, or acidic foods and beverages.

Q. Are there any alternatives to fluoride toothpaste for dental care?

A. Fluoride is highly beneficial for strengthening tooth enamel and preventing tooth decay. However, there are fluoride-free toothpaste options available, which may be suitable for certain individuals, especially those with specific health conditions or concerns about fluoride ingestion.

Q. What are the consequences of neglecting dental care?

A. Neglecting dental care can lead to various oral health problems, such as tooth decay, gum disease (gingivitis and periodontitis), tooth loss, bad breath, and tooth sensitivity. Additionally, poor dental health has been linked to systemic health issues, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Q. How often should I visit the dentist?

A. It is recommended to visit the dentist for regular check-ups and cleanings at least twice a year. However, some individuals with specific oral health conditions may require more frequent visits to maintain optimal dental health.

Q. Is it normal for my gums to bleed during brushing or flossing?

A. Gum bleeding during brushing or flossing can be an early sign of gum disease or gingivitis. It is not considered normal, and you should consult your dentist if you experience persistent gum bleeding to address any underlying issues and prevent further complications.


The enamel, dentin, and dental pulp that make up our teeth are extraordinary structures that are essential to preserving oral health and function. Understanding the structure of teeth emphasizes the importance of good dental hygiene, which includes consistent brushing, flossing, and dental examinations. Protecting our teeth from damaging germs and plaque will ensure that they last a lifetime and allow us to eat and smile with confidence.